Saturday, March 14, 2020
Definition and Examples of a Lingua Franca A lingua franca (pronounced LING-wa FRAN-ka) is a language or mixture of languages used as a medium of communication by people whose native languages are different. It is from the Italian, language Frankish and also known as a trade language, contact language, international language, and global language. The term English as a lingua franca (ELF) refers to the teaching, learning, and use of the English language as a common means of communication for speakers of different native languages. Examples and Observations Where a language is widely used over a relatively large geographical area as a language of wider communication, it is known as a lingua francaa common language but one which is native only to some of its speakers. The term lingua franca itself is an extension of the use of the name of the original Lingua Franca, a Medieval trading pidgin used in the Mediterranean region. (M. Sebba, Contact Languages: Pidgins and Creoles. Palgrave, 1997) English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) The status of English is such that it has been adopted as the worlds lingua franca for communication in Olympic sport, international trade, and air-traffic control. Unlike any other language, past or present, English has spread to all five continents and has become a truly global language. (G. Nelson and B. Aarts, Investigating English Around the World, The Workings of Language, ed. by R. S. Wheeler. Greenwood, 1999)Even though everybody around the world speaks Englishsort ofin their dealings with American media and business, politics, and culture, the English that is spoken is a lingua franca, a Bodysnatched English to be carefully scrutinized as to its meanings when it is used by a foreign culture. (Karin Dovring, English as Lingua Franca: Double Talk in Global Persuasion. Praeger, 1997)But what do we mean by the term English as a lingua franca? The term lingua franca is usually taken to mean any lingual medium of communication between people of different mother tongues, for whom i t is a second language (Samarin, 1987, p. 371). In this definition, then, a lingua franca has no native speakers, and this notion is carried over into definitions of English as a lingua franca, such as in the following example: [ELF] is a contact language between persons who share neither a common native tongue nor a common (national) culture, and for whom English is the chosen foreign language of communication (Firth, 1996, p. 240).Clearly, the role of English as the chosen foreign language of communication in Europe is an extremely important one, and one that is on the increase. . . . It is important to note that this means that both in Europe as well as in the world as a whole, English is now a language that is mainly used by bi- and multilinguals, and that its (often monolingual) native speakers are a minority. (Barbara Seidlhofer, Common Property: English as a Lingua Franca in Europe. International Handbook of English Language Teaching, ed. by Jim Cummins and Chris Davison. Spr inger, 2007) Globish as a Lingua Franca I want to draw a distinction between a language which is spread through nurture, a mother tongue, and a language that is spread through recruitment, which is a lingua franca. A lingua franca is a language that you consciously learn because you need to, because you want to. A mother tongue is a language that you learn because you cant help it. The reason English is spreading around the world at the moment is because of its utility as a lingua franca. Globisha simplified version of English thats used around the worldwill be there as long as it is needed, but since its not being picked up as a mother tongue, its not typically being spoken by people to their children. It is not getting effectively to first base, the most crucial first base for long-term survival of a language. (Nicholas Ostler quoted by Robert McCrum in My Bright Idea: English Is On the Up but One Day Will Die Out. The Observer, October 31, 2010) Cyberspace English Because the cyberspace community, at least at the moment, is overwhelmingly English speaking, it is appropriate to say that English is its unofficial language. . . .The colonial past, imperialistic stealth, and the emergence of other language blocs in cyberspace as it grows will minimize in due time the preeminence of English as the de facto language of cyberspace. . . .[Jukka] Korpela sees another alternative to cyberspace English and a constructed language. He predicts the development of better language machine translation algorithms. Such algorithms will result in efficient and sufficient quality language translators, and there will be no need for a lingua franca. (J. M. Kizza, Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age. Springer, 2007)
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Unit 3 Theoretical Criminology Anomie Theory - Essay Example Indeed, the above fact can be used to account for white-collar crime. Of interesting to note is that mertonian approaches leaned towards white-collar crime and the anomie theory was used in explaining this kind of crime. This is based on the fact that the theory tends to explain why crime occurs and as such this can be used to explain why there is occurrence of white collar crime. Notably, criminals adopting cultural endorsed objective or goals of financial success illegally mainly characterize white-collar crime. Most white-collar crimes are related to the need of the offenders to gain money or other stuffs in order to fit in particular social classes or culture. This is more seen in criminals who are out there to become richer than before. As such, social and cultural factors, as considered by Merton, influence white collar jobs (Gomme 56). To emphasize on this, some researches carried out have showed that most convicted white collar criminals were caught while still working and they claim that they were trying to achieve economic success through illegal means (Akers and Sellers 45). As such, they can be said to be innovators given that at the time of committing crime they were after economic success. Innovators are considered to be those individuals who continually embrace material and monetary success as a goal to follow; however, they turn to criminal activities to achieve this success. Street gangs are groups formed mainly youth who are not capable of obtaining what they require through conventional means. Indeed, through these streets groups, the individuals find money and friendship and most of what they desire. Using strain theory, one may attempt to explain how various factors such as homelessness, poverty, lack of opportunity and parenting largely contribute to the formation of crime and crime (Warner and Flower 511). In relation to
Monday, February 10, 2020
Hospitality Current - Essay Example Challenges Facing the Hospitality Industry Introduction In the past centuries, hospitality was not a common field known by many people as an important and critical part of societal life. This fact just changed with the booming international trade and changes in lifestyles for many citizens across the world. The two factors have not existed peaceably but have been posing challenges in the sector of hospitality. Among the challenges faced by the hospitality sector include competition, technological advancement, diversity, lack of professionalism to offer proper services, food safety and sanitation, security issues, and globalization among other problems. Rigorous technological advancement has posed serious challenges to the hospitality industry the world over. Technological advancement has transformed the way work is done in the hospitality industry (Powers & Barrows, 2008). Almost every activity is automated or computerized and the marketing venues are shifting to the internet. Hospit ality industry players have sought to employ the use of websites for marketing their products, increasing operation costs due to high costs of maintaining the websites. In order to broaden customer base, players in the hospitality industry need to invest on technologies that can enable online booking for services by the customers (Binion, 2006). The initial cost and maintenance of such technologies is exorbitant and in some cases unaffordable by certain operators in the industries Uncertainty occasioned by rising security has triggered unrest among the customers of the hospitality industry such as hotels which record low bookings as visitors shy away. Increased cases of terrorism have raised fear in customers as they always think of their safety when travelling (Powers & Barrows, 2008). Cases of abduction have also caused security doubts among many, which has negatively affected the hospitality industry as customers fear to travel freely across the world. Many operators in the hospi tality industry such as hotels and air travel agencies have been forced to invest in expensive and hi-tech security measures to retain the confidence of consumers as far as their security is concerned. The hospitality industry players have also been compelled to spend much money in insuring their operations against any occurrence of insecurity. Cases of food poisoning in various hotels have raised concerns of food safety and proper sanitation. Reported death cases occasioned by food poisoning affects customers consumption of good food products in the hospitality industry (Powers & Barrows, 2008). Cultural diversity has also pushed hospitality industry into expensive foodstuffs to meet the demands of their customers The significant challenge that has disrupted the growth of sectors in the hospitality is the recent global economic recession. The crisis has done a lot to discourage people from travelling due to high cost of travelling and low income earned by many consumers (Rob, 2010) . Additionally, the financial crisis has pushed the hospitality industry to increase the costs of accommodation, causing a sharp decline in demand of hotel and hospitality related services. Increase in the level and number of individual acquiring education has resulted to high levels of customer awareness. Customers have tended to demand services whose quality gives good value for their money.
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Courage in to Kill a Mockingbird Essay One likes to think of a hero, as strong, brave, and meeting all challenges head on. All the characters in this book have a different view as to what courage is, and they all show it in different ways through their everyday lives. Younger characters, like Jem and Scout, see the physical aspect of it, whereas Atticus believes this to be an extremely weak form of courage. He believes in the mental quality of courage. The ability to be in minority and not back down and to be able to change; he admires Mrs. Dubose for her acts of courage that are against all odds. For a younger character, like Scout, courage is often associated with a physical act that is usually dangerous. It is hard for young children to realize that courage can be shown in other aspects of life. Scout sees an example of courage in her father when he shoots the mad dog Tim Johnson (pg. 101). Although Atticus does not think of it as very courageous, Jem and Scout are proud of their father and the courage he showed in this dangerous situation. Atticus views courage on a more intellectual level, as a moral thing not something that can be proved with a weapon. Later on in the story, Jem and Scout encounter the vindictive, spiteful Mrs. Dubose who often shouts out racism directed at the passing children because of AtticusÃ¢â¬â¢ job. At one point she proclaimed, Your fathers no better than the niggers and trash he works for! (pg. 111). When she blatantly made Atticus an object of ridicule like that, Jem decided that the best way to settle things was to ruin Mrs. Duboses camellias. Since he could not attack Mrs. Dubose directly, Jem decided to go for something close to her. He is committing a physical act of retaliation, which led to her suffering mental pain yet again. It was a cowardly act, for he dared not step up and confront her. After Atticus heard about this stunt, Jem was made to read to her every afternoon for a month. He now needed mental valour, and he did find it more difficult to source this than the physical bravery he was used to displaying. This is made apparent by him refusing to walk past her house alone, and because Jem was at first terrified of going to see her. Mrs. Dubose was a very sick woman, and had used morphine to ease her pain but was now addicted. It was her goal to leave the world beholden to nothing and nobody (pg. 120). She displayed what Atticus refers to as real courage. (pg. 121). She showed real courage because she does not have the luxury of standing there with a gun pointed at her addiction. One single attempt could not free her from the addiction. Rather, it had to be a many staged process over an extended period of time. It was shear determination and real courage that allowed her to accomplish her goal. It was not until after she died that Atticus explained to Jem and Scout how courageous the woman was because she knew she was dying but was still determined to die free of the morphine. She fought against great odds, even though she knew that she would surely die. Atticus tells his children that he wanted them to see what real courage is, instead of getting the idea that courage is a man with a gun in his hand. He also says that she was the bravest person he ever knew. (pg. 121) Real courage is when you fight for what is right regardless of whether you win or lose. Atticus Finch demonstrates real courage several times throughout the novel, in addition to the lessons that he teaches his children. The largest and most important example would be the trial of Tom Robinson. When Atticus took the case, he went up against Maycomb, a generally prejudiced town, in order to defend Tom. He understood that taking the case would make him an object of ridicule and that no one would forgive him for believing a black mans word over a white mans. Even his own sister expresses disapproval at his decision, practically telling him he was bringing disgrace to the family. Nevertheless, no matter how much his reputation suffered, he did not change his mind. Standing up for his morals and ethics was more important than what people thought about him. From the very start Atticus knows he will not win the case however he does his job and finishes what he set out to do. Atticuss strong sense of morality and justice motivates him to defend Tom Robinson with determination, giving it all he has. He shows this when he says, Simply because we were licked a hundred years before we started is no reason for us not to try and win. (pg. 82). He says this to Scout after she comes home from school angry at Cecil Jacobs for making fun of Atticus in the schoolyard. Atticus tells her to fight with her head instead of her fists. He wants the people of Maycomb to hear the truth about Tom, That boy may go to the chair, but hes not going till the truths told. (pg. 159). Atticus is putting everything a man holds dear, dignity, respect, honor and status, on the line to protect Tom. He later shows more bravery when he goes to the jailhouse to protect Tom from a mob. Without thinking twice, he rushed to Toms aid. He went willingly, knowing that if a mob did form he would be greatly outnumbered and would easily be beaten. Still, he put Toms well being ahead of his own welfare. While serving justice, Atticus also showed great courage. For example, he did not go along with Heck Tate when he told a lie about what really happened the night Bob Ewell was found stabbed to death. Atticus put his life and career on the line because he knew that, as an officer of the court, withholding information from an investigation could have gotten Mr. Tate thrown into jail. Nonetheless, like many times before, doing what was right and fair prevailed in Atticuss way of thinking. In addition, Atticus went against his moral code and principles he had always upheld before, when Atticus is faced with the decision of abiding by the law or breaking it in order to do the right thing. He knew that incarcerating a man like Arthur Radley would have been unforgivable, especially after Arthur had just performed a great deed by saving his childrens lives. He knew that exposing him would be an awful way of repaying him; it would have been like shooting a mockingbird. Therefore, Atticus chose to protect Boo from the public eye rather than abide by the law and his honest judicial ways he was so accustomed to follow. Sometimes it takes even more courage to set a new level of morals than to stay in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s comfort zone. (pg. 297-302). The courage to change habits and thoughts is very important, because not everyone is able to do it. A very good example of this courage is when Atticus asked Scout not to fight anymore. When I committed myself to this act of cowardice. Word got around that Scout Finch wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t fight anymore, her daddy wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t let her. (pg. 97). That was a great act of courage because Scout used to fight a lot but as she had promised her father she would not fight anymore. Scout, like Jem does not want to disappoint Atticus, so she makes a change. In conclusion, Atticus shows praiseworthy courage and behaviour in many instances throughout the story, not by fighting or killing, but by standing up for what he believed in a civilized and determined way. His strongest motivation, however, were his children. He wants to be a good example for his kids and encourage in them a strong sense of moral value. One time Scout asks him why he had taken a case he knew he was not going to win and he responded by saying, For a number of reasons. The main one is, if I didnt I couldnt hold up my head in town, I couldnt represent this county in the legislature, I couldnt even tell you or Jem not to do something again. (pg. 82). In other words, he would not have been able to talk to his kids about justice and standing up for what one believes when he himself had not stood for what he believed in. The lessons taught by Atticus and Mrs. Dubose show Jem and Scout what it is to be courageous, to be able to change, to tell the truth and most importantly to stand up for their own beliefs. All qoutes from Lee, Harper, 1960, To kill a Mokingbird, London, Pan Books
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Holden Holden Caulfield is in many ways a typical teenager, skeptical of all authority and with a truculent attitude. The one value that he espouses is authenticity and morality, although he does not carry any other these characteristics himself. Holden also focuses on authenticity and, in turn, the essential phoniness of others around him but does not see the phoniness in himself. Holden's admission that he is the "most terrific liar." One could meet is an apt statement, for his delusions extend beyond making others believe his deceptions. In fact, it is debatable whether or not people believe Holden's lies. Rather, Holden's ability to lie is most manifest in his own sense of self-delusion. Holden is at a constant war with himself between the way he acts and the way he likes other to act. Continuing to berate others for phoniness, Holden cannot recognize the same sense of vapidity within himself. For example, he claims to be both illiterate and an avid reader, and when identifying his favorite authors he cannot identify any particular reason why he likes those authors' works. A reoccurring theme in the story is how Holden thinks everyone he comes into contact with is a phony, but yet throughout the novel it seems that the phoniest person is Holden. These two sides are contradicting each other . For instance, he says that he hates Ackley and yet when he needs a place to stay after his fight with Stadlater he turns to Ackley for a place to stay. What I think Holden really feels is that Ackley is someone who socially he feels should be a looser but someone who he trusts and can come to in a time of need. Holden seems to harbor a disgust for any type of sexuality, whether Ackley's obviously false boasts or Stradlater's successful seductions. Yet, Holden brags about his own false sexual encounters. To the reader, it could be easy to determine that Holden is sexually frustrated wanting sex but when having the opportunity to have it forcefully declines. Holden continues to show a latent hostility toward everyone he meets, for instance the encounters with Lillian Simmons or Horwitz. In most of these encounters, Holden expresses a false sense of cordiality toward the people he encounters, yet describes only their most negative traits.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
When we first started going out, my friends and family noticed a difference in me. I'd come home from school and my family would say, Ã¢â¬Å"You're smiling a lot. Ã¢â¬ My friends would ask how you're doing, and I'd blush as we talked. When I'm with you, it's like my world is in perfect harmony. I could get lost in your eyes. You're an all-around amazing guy, intelligent, sweet, funny, adorableÃ¢â¬ ¦ The list goes on. I appreciate you. I cherish you. You kept me strong, kept me believing.And even when I was ready to give up on myself, you weren't. You've never given up on me, even when I didn't think I was worth it. I want you beside me always. Over the last year and 9 months you have sincerely been everything I have ever hoped for in a partner and so much more than I ever believed I could find in another person. Being with you is so amazing. You are my playmate, my confidant, my passionate lover, my protector, my partner and cost importantly my true friend.Over the thought of spe nding the rest of my life by your side gives me butterflies. Good or bad, I want to be right there with you through it all and I truly want to experience as much of life as we possibly can together. Thank you for every moment we have shared since that day we met. Thank you for your love, patience, kindness and generosity. Thank you for really loving me. Happy anniversary babe I love you so much. :*
Monday, January 6, 2020
High School: A time in our lives that sets the mold for who we are going to be in this world. It does this by teaching us great lessons about life, ourselves, and other people through various experiences. One of these experiences I chose to take part in was football. It was this decision that led me to this fateful day. A day in which my left leg was shattered and my perspectives on life were drastically changed. The journey I had embark on to deal with all of the after effects of this event taught me life lessons IÃ¢â¬â¢ll never forget. It was October 24th, 2014. This date fell on a Friday and during football season that meant it was game day for most high school teams. Not just any game though, it was our district championship. I remember it all like it was yesterday. The smell of the fresh cut grass was so satisfying and the grass itself was even more delightful to see on the field. The atmosphere was phenomenal. Both cheer squads were screaming their chants. Fans and parents a like were yelling and clapping. My shoulder pads were fastened tight around my ribs and shoulders. The adrenaline was flowing through my veins. My mind was prepared for the game but not what was about to befall me. This is where the story starts to spiral downwards. It was about five minutes into the first quarter and we ran up the middle. I was the designated lead blocker. I lunged at the linebacker full force and knocked him down. I had so much momentum going towards him that I went straight to theShow MoreRelatedMy Experience In High School952 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages High school is a time where young minded teenagers are encouraged to explore their interests and what type of character they want to become when graduation rolls in. My high school experience was an interesting time with choices that have changed my life and some that I wish I could take back. 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